For the past few years, professor Timothy Demy and Major General John J. Salesses, USMC(ret.), have been teaching the elective the Pen and the Sword at the US Naval War College. Itâ€™s a class, Demy says, that uses the literature of war to explore the relationship between the fiction and reality, the written word and the lived experience.
Students study leadership, ethics, and the experience of war from the pens of those who have experienced it as well as those who have imagined it. A while back I had the opportunity to sit down with Dr. Demy and talk about books, poetry, and the state of reading in the military today.
I noticed that you teach the Herman Melville novella Billy Budd the Sailor. Why that book?
Billy Budd is a leadership issue and an ethics issue. Here the captain is a witness to an event [Budd strikes another crew member]. And he clearly sympathizes and empathizes with Billy Budd, but he still has to hold captainâ€™s mast. It is one illustration that personalizes the challenges of command. The commander always brings his or her personality, morality, and ethics to the job. I think we read literature like that through a different lens once we have had some military experience. Of course, students, theyâ€™ve read the books and seen the movies â€” but once youâ€™ve had some military experience it becomes more than entertainment. The purposes of literature are to entertain and instruct â€” those are the two great purposes of literature. So usually when people read they are reading for entertainment. But we are trying to get students to really learn. I think youâ€™ll find that the challenges of leadership donâ€™t change through the centuries. War literature shows that and how literature really is a conversation throughout history.
Why do you think so many people really donâ€™t want to tackle someone like Melville?
For a lot of people, literature was something that was thrust on them. So it was more of something to be endured rather than enjoyed. Most products of American high-schools, at least for my generation, endured 10th grade English; we were just trying to get through Shakespeareâ€™s â€śJulius Caesar.â€ť And military leaders are incredibly busy people; Itâ€™s hard to find time to do everything. Sometimes their lack of reading is lack of desire, sometimes itâ€™s simply priorities, lack of time, or a lack of a sense of direction. Or what little time the leader may have is used carefully. Do I go to the golf course? Do I go to the gym? Many of them are out there trying to balance many things. You kind of have to cram it in when you can, but Iâ€™m sure there are those out there that would like to get more reading done.
Do you think poetry is relevant today?
It seems that 99% of the population cringe when you mention poetry. But once you understand what it does it can be very powerful. There is a poem called the Death of the Ball Turret Gunner. A very short poem; a WWII poem. I once had a student who signed up for the class, and he came up to me and asked me if he could read and discuss the poem in class. He told me that he had been in Fallujah, and that he read that poem everyday, and he prayed his experience would not be the same fate as the character in the poem. Poetry gives voice to that which is otherwise often unspeakable.
The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner
From my mother’s sleep I fell into the State,
And I hunched in its belly till my wet fur froze.
Six miles from earth, loosed from its dream of life,
I woke to black flak and the nightmare fighters.
When I died they washed me out of the turret with a hose.
What poets today do you think are approachable for a military audience?
The First World War poets are worth reading. They are a watershed in the history of war poetry. Before that it was the Charge of the Light Brigade, and themes of God, King, and Country, that sort of stuff. The WWI poets on the other hand were very personal. It wasnâ€™t for God and Glory; it was for me and my mates. Itâ€™s very intense. I recommend the Oxford Book of Poetry. Itâ€™s a good anthology through the centuries. We read a number of poems in there. The poems of Thomas Hardy; his poem Drummer Hodge or The Man He Killed are Boer War poems and are worth reading. Certainly Kiplingâ€™s poem Tommy is very well known. If you read Tommy, it brings out all the things you would discuss in a class about civil-military relations. Kiplingâ€™s words are based on an earlier short poem: In times of war and not before/God and the soldier we adore/In time of trouble and not before/The battle over and all things righted/God is forgotten and the soldier slighted.
There are two great themes in poetry â€” one is romance and the other is war. Once people read a few poems, theyâ€™ll realize how similar they are to their own experiences. We read a poem called The Lament of the Frontier Guard. Itâ€™s a seventh-century Chinese poem translated by Ezra Pound. Anyone who has stood a late night watch can relate to this, regardless of how old it is or what culture it is from. This is a similar experience that transcends centuries. Poetry can help you think: â€śThatâ€™s me, I can relate to that.â€ť
What do you think fiction does for us? Many military readers read because they want information, so they turn to nonfiction.
There is a lack of appreciation that through reading fiction we gain insights into humanity, the human experience, and the challenges of life. We are able to be transported to other worlds â€” real and imaginary. And everybody loves a story… â€śOnce upon a timeâ€ť; â€śIn a galaxy far, far away.â€ť Story telling is part of the creative experience of people. And some cultures and people spend more time telling stories than others. C.S. Lewis said that â€śLiterary experience heals the wound, without undermining the privilege of individuality. In reading great literature I become one thousand men and yet remain myself, like the night sky in the Greek poem I see with a myriad eyes but it is still I who see.â€ť He also said, â€śInstead of stripping a knight of his armor you can try to put his armor on yourself.â€ť
What are some of your favorite books that you teach?
I really enjoy C.S. Foresterâ€™s The Good Shepherd and also his story Rifleman Dodd. I also enjoy Bridges of Toko Ri.
What are some of your favorite books â€” Fiction and Nonfiction?
Well, for nonfiction, a great book that is not really known is a book called To War with Whitaker. It is by the Countess of Ranfulry. She was Australian, married a Brit, during the Second World War. She follows her husband to the Middle-East in WWII. Itâ€™s her wartime diaries. Because of her competence she meets all the great leaders in WWII, and ends up working for some of them. Her husband gets captured. Itâ€™s just a fabulous memoir. When I got to the last third of the book I had to ration my reading. Iâ€™ll go on Amazon.com and buy a few used copies and give themÂ away to friends as gifts â€” itâ€™s just a great book. Gordon McDonald Frasierâ€™s Quartered Safe Out Here, which is his war memoirs, are fabulous. Heâ€™s often known for his Flashman Series, which are also great. I enjoy C.S. Lewis; his letters are excellent. A great book that every student should read is Karl Marlantesâ€™ What It Is Like to Go to War. And after that, people need to read his book Matterhorn. Len Deightonâ€™s Bomber is also a powerful book. And a little bit different, but also a great book is Alexander Solzhenitsynâ€™s One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich.
What do you read for entertainment?
I enjoy the detective stories of Philip Kerr. Iâ€™ll read all of the Flashman series. I tried to get into science-fiction, but it just didnâ€™t click with me. I tend to like the things that are a little bit different. I enjoy the Patrick Oâ€™Brien series, so much that Iâ€™ve started it a second time. But it takes a while to get through it. The NY Times called it the best historical fiction novel; and it is. And just looking at my shelf, I notice my copy of World War Z, and itâ€™s also a great book. I was surprised, really, on how good it was. My motto is never go anywhere without a book. I either have my Kindle with me, or a book. You never know when youâ€™ll have some free time which to read a book. And I keep a mixture of novels and nonfiction. I will often have two or three books going at the same time.
How do you become a better reader?
First, you need to read more. But you want to identify for what purpose you are reading something â€” is it for entertainment or instruction? Write down words and phrases and sentences that mean something to you. Figure out what you are reading and why.
Sir â€” Thanks for your time.
Thank you. Great talking with you.
Professor Timothy J. Demy is Professor of Military Ethics at the Naval War College. A retired Navy chaplain and the former chaplain for the NWC, he holds doctorates in historical theology (Th.D.) and humanities and technology (Ph.D.) and several masterâ€™s degrees including the Master of Arts in National Security and Strategic Studies from the Naval War College from which he was the Presidentâ€™s Honor Graduate. He also received a masterâ€™s degree from the University of Cambridge in international relations with an emphasis on religion and international relations (honors thesis). He has published extensively in the areas of ethics, theology, history, and international relations. As a chaplain for 27 years, he served in a variety of assignments including Navy afloat and ashore assignments and tours with the Marine Corps and the Coast Guard.